Trails-X – A Test of Executive Planning

Authors: David E. Hartman, PhD, and Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD
Purpose: Assess adaptive planning and executive function through an innovative trail-making task
Ages: 8 – 79 years
Format: Paper and pencil
Published: 2019
Administration Time: 5 – 10 minutes
Qualification Level C

Qualification Level: C Click For More Qualification Level Information


The Trails-X is an innovative take on the traditional trail-making task that includes additional executive function demands by requiring examinees to connect circles of alternating colors with no designated start or end point. Individually administered, the Trails-X offers nine trails that assess adaptive planning, coupled with psychomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, impulse control, flexible attention, and the ability to adapt to novel or changing situations.

The examinee is asked to draw straight, nonoverlapping lines connecting circles of alternating colors and continue until all circles are connected. Individuals must work carefully to avoid crossing lines or being forced to discontinue before the task is complete. Examinees must plan their path and adapt while working as quickly as possible.

• Removes the requirement of numeracy and literacy as there is no need to be able to recognize letters or numbers, which makes this task language free and more culturally fair.
• Circles are yellow and blue, as they are colors that are least likely to be problematic for individuals who are colorblind.

Trails-X Technical Information
Standardized on a sample of 732 individuals drawn from a population-proportionate sampling plan based upon U.S. Census data.

WordPress Tables

Purchase Order Information

: Email to
Credit Card and Phone Orders: Call Schoolhouse Educational Services at 608-487-8282

Email Purchase Orders To:
Click Here For Email

Schoolhouse Educational Services
P.O. Box 397
Sparta, WI 54656

Shipping Policy
Purchases of internet-based tests and assessment software are delivered via the internet. An email with instructions will be sent when the order is received. Orders for in-stock books, laminates, and printed assessment materials are shipped within 72 hours. Special orders are excepted from this policy. Additional shipping charges apply to Alaska and all orders from outside the continental U.S.

Returns Policy

Please visit Refunds and Returns to view our policy on refunds and returns.