Assessing Informal Reasoning in Culturally Diverse Students

Author: Carl Romstad, Ed.S.
Published on July 8, 2019

Since the onset of the 20th century, Western nations have been researching and developing methods to predict the academic success of students in the formalized educational system (Benjamin, 2009; Wasserman, 2012). Current methods utilize standardized intelligence tests (Deary, Strand, Smith, & Fernandes, 2007; Kaufman, 2009; Laundra, & Sutton, 2008; Zavala & Mims, 1983). Although Wasserman (2012) states that there is no agreed upon definition of the term ‘intelligence’, perhaps the best definition, to date, is found in Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary (2019) which defines intelligence as one’s “ability to reason, apply knowledge, think abstractly, and process information.” Central to the term intelligence are both general intelligence and/or fluid reasoning (Ferrer, O’Hare, & Bunge, 2009; Kanazawa, 2010; Maccow, 2015; Perkins, Farady, & Bushy, 1991).

Formal Reasoning

General Intelligence and/or fluid reasoning are widely accepted as the foundation of human cognition and achievement (Ferrer, et al., 2009; Maccow, 2015)…

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